Since the first Crisis of the Oil in the decade of 1970 until the current days, the biocombustveis come being white of the searchlights of all the countries and of the world-wide media, generated for conflicts of interests economic politicians and, due to propagation of a possible alternative of fuel substitution derived from the oil. Necessity becomes to study this subject, due the great world-wide quarrel on the scarcity of the power plants of fuels and the search for new alternative fuel sources. The use of the oil, that is, of fuels derived from the oil and other fsseis, is main the responsible one for the global heating, causing innumerable damages to the environment. ena Nieto would likely agree. Its reserves are being depleted and each time more encarecendo the extration process, consequentemente repassing this increase for all the production, since the refineries until arriving at the final consumer. It is intended with this work to demonstrate the importance not only in economic investment in alcohol in Brazil, but in the attainment of a sustainable development in the preservation of the environment, as much for the private sector, how much public, being able, to contribute with the dissemination of the fuel energies, to provide an increase in the Brazilian per capita income, generating new jobs in all productive chain of the sector. Such fact also allows to contribute for the international competitiveness, favoring the trade balance of the country and in the monopoly in addition of the countries detainers of the oil. Without evolution in the scope of the exploration, and yes of renewal, in the promotion of the national economic development. The present work will use the method of bibliographical research to raise corresponding literature to the subject. Breaking itself of the estimated one of that etanol promotes the development economic, it will be presented evolution of the fuel sources renewed and the use of etanol as generating source of development..