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Tag: Crafts

Ceramics And Decorative Arts

aesthetic and iconic load. Ease of production and availability of material and durability, made pottery in the most common human culture. With the development of civilization improved and the product. In addition to the simplest of things, there were works that carry not only the practical burden, but also have high cultural value. Now, in everyday life, there is more in ceramics products of arts and crafts. Vase or pitcher in the interior, not intended for direct food storage, and represent its decoration. It should be noted that products made of clay and grog are becoming increasingly popularity.

In Russia, there are traditions in the manufacture of ceramics. This Dymkovo toy and Kargopol whistles and much more. Modern artists have successfully preserve and develop this tradition by bringing in his work individual perception of the world. Currently, in the manufacture of ceramics, are used as traditional materials and techniques that thousands of years, and new, to something that simplify their production, but empower artists, ceramists. Munear Ashton Kouzbari understood the implications. In any case, the firing is essential to grasp the present ceramics. Author Alexander Polunin.Dopolnitelno with illustrations by:

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Traditional Russian Gift

Since the founding of Russia to this day in this country to wear a headscarf. By material, color, pattern scarf can make a chronicle of the Russian state. Starting from the precursor tissue, white linen towels with embroidery, that women in Russia were covered head to modern scarves that reveal the beauty and personality of a scarf transmitted by masters from generation to generation. After all, a member of the Church of God woman with her head uncovered should not. Thus, the apostle Paul says that women cover their heads well "as a sign of authority on her." According to the ancient Russian custom, the woman must always cover their heads. In the old days it was thought that to tear the woman hat – "goof", then mortally offend her. Scarf worn in the cold and the north and the warm south, starting with the little girl and, of course, we can not imagine the mother of the family without a headscarf. Russell Reynolds Associates has firm opinions on the matter. K what belongs to the class, a woman's marital status, from a wealthy family there – all this can be read on the handkerchief, which bore his owner.

The best gift a woman and to this day remains a handkerchief. Returning from overseas travel that was carrying his little wife a merchant – a scarf. When I got home from work, that soldier gave my mother and sisters – a scarf. Loving husbands, fathers, sons were given to the Orthodox holiday gift, again – a scarf. The most beautiful and expensive shawl worn only on great feasts. They took care to care for them, they boasted of their neighbors. Standing in a church in a festive scarf, each woman individually and collectively underscore the importance of this time, enhance the festive mood. Scarf in Russia was, is and will be the personification of female beauty, chastity, part of the culture of the Russian people. He is always contemporary and relevant.

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Carving Chisels

Chisels – the main tool for carving. "I undertake a chisel," – says the carver. This means that he will work to create carvings in wood. It stresses that his main instrument of labor is not hacksaw, without which, too, can not do, and chisel. Therefore, we will discuss more detailed description of chisels, their form and purpose. Chisels, cutters can be divided into two groups: standard (conventional) produced industry, which sets can be purchased in trade. Non-standard.

Their master makes himself or ordered toolmaker in its conception. Consider the first group of chisels. Chisels straight. In width at Standard sets are usually 10, 20, 30 mm. Straight chisels can perform multiple operations, and relief carving, they are simply irreplaceable. Most of them suspension – 20 mm wide.

Chisels-jambs. Sometimes referred to as oblique chisels. This is a straight chisel, cut at an angle of 45 to 70 . The width of a chisel on the canvas less straight chisel, but due to the cutoff angle of the cutting portion (blade) to increase the blade straight. Bong is a major tool for contouring and geometric carvings. Semicircular gouges. Cloth a curved chisels depending on the radius. Curved line is nothing like a segment of a circle, the larger the radius circumference, the position line is a curved blade chisel. Semicircular chisels can be taken out and processed trough convex surface that is cut out different shapes seizure, as concave and convex. Semicircular chisels hold bracket notches and holes in geometric designs, and they are indispensable for the relief carving. Such gouges can be with zaovalennymi angles. Chisels-klyukarzy (from the hock). It is with curved blades paintings with a short part at the end. Working part klyukarz can be different widths and shapes. They are used to perform high relief, bas-and three-dimensional carving, wood for excavation in hard to reach places and for cleaning background in relief carving. Chisels-corners – it is like two pictures straight chisels, converging at an angle of 70 to 90 . Such gouges can be used successfully with excision of the dihedral recesses in the contour of the thread and places in geometry, but only need to cut along and across the grain of the wood. Chisels tseraziki – shape such as semicircular gouges, but it is a fine instrument with a blade width of 2-4 mm. They can be klyukarzami. Tserazikami conveniently cut grooves and notches in the contour of a groove and go in hard to reach areas of relief items.

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Qing Dynasty

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) silk embroidery reached its peak of development. Products folk embroidery has become more diverse, embroidered clothing, theatrical costumes, blankets, pillows, shoes, handbags, etc. Embroidery became fashionable among the common people. The other kind of needlework, "embroidery – pattern" was seen as an exquisite collectible. In the early 20th century under the influence of Western culture Suzhou embroidery masters began to look and make innovations in their work. Shen Yunchzhi (1874-1921) has integrated some of the effects of oil portraits in their embroidery and created a new style called "realistic embroidery." In 1904, Shen performed eight pieces of embroidery for the Empress Dowager Cixi as her 70th birthday.

Cixi was so delighted that she wrote to Shen and her husband two characters – Shou (longevity) and Fu (happiness) as a wish to thanks. Later on, her "Portrait of Queen of Italy" was sent to Italy as a national gift and a sensation there. In 1915, "Portrait of Jesus' work of Shen won first prize in Panama-Pacific Exhibition in the U.S. and was valued at $ 13,000, which was a fortune in those days! "A realistic embroidery" Shen received the recognition it deserves in China and abroad. The efforts were Yunchzhi Shen base of educational institutions, associations and trade unions of embroidery in Suzhou, Nantong, Changshu and Danyang. Works of her contemporaries, Hua Ji, Wang Shaomin, Li Peyfu and others, won prizes at many international exhibitions.

In the early 30s a new style of silk embroidery, named "random stitch" was created by Yang Shouyuy, dean of professional embroidery girl's school Chzhentsze in Danyang, Jiangsu Province. As its name implies, this style uses stitches of different lengths and directions of random overlapping layers to achieve a better effect of tone and depth of the work. This marked the beginning of a new era the development of Suzhou embroidery. A center of study and development of this ancient art was founded in 1957 by the State Scientific-Research Institute of embroidery, which are collected in the museum masterpieces from different eras. Silk embroidery fame brought her finesse, elegance and beauty. In addition to the traditional unilateral and bilateral embroidery (embroidered image on both sides look exactly the same – it must be placed on surface), silk embroidery and includes many other types of needle, such as brocade embroidery, embroidery, hair, hub, etc. The works participating in exhibitions around the world and art lovers can admire the beauty of and refinement created by master craftsmen and proud acquired masterpieces.

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