Serious competition to pharmacies and pharmacy network of channel drug delivery by mail (19% of all sales of prescription drugs), which value from year to year. Compared with the cost parameters in the structure of sales volume , the share of mail delivery is still relatively small (7.2%), but this is rapidly increasing. Total share of traditional pharmacies (network and independent) on the market of prescription drugs in terms of value is about 59%, while they provide more than two thirds of all prescription prescriptions (68%). Despite the fact that independent pharmacies traditional almost completely focused on the implementation of prescription drugs, the average sale in terms of one pharmacy they have almost 2 times less than the traditional network. In light of the differences in the specific trade indicators for a single pharmacy is even higher, since the networks, in addition to prescription drug (72% of turnover), significant part of sales of other products make up. In other network pharmacies (in supermarkets and mass merchant) selling prescription drugs in terms of one pharmacy is significantly lower than in the traditional network pharmacies, but higher than in independent.
At the pharmacy market in the U.S. are more than 200 networks of various sizes, most of which are included in the NACDS. Analysis of the quantitative composition of networks – the members of NACDS (total 188) shows that of the 135 networks (72% of total) on 50 and less than pharmacies, 18 networks (10%) – between 51 and 100 pharmacies, 24 networks (12%) – from 101 to 500, 2 networks – from 501 to 1000. The composition of 11 networks included more than 1,000 pharmacies in the 4 – more than 3,000 pharmacies. On the numerical composition of the big chains dominate: they account for, respectively, 77 and 48% of the total number of network pharmacies. Four of the leaders of networks represented CVS, Wallgreen, Wal-Mart Stores and Rite Aid. Overview of key performance networks Wallgreen, CVS and Rite Aid expands understanding of the general laws of the pharmaceutical retail in the U.S.. Estimating general features of the leading U.S.
drugstore chains, it is important to note similar figures the average area of a pharmacy (approximately 4,000 square meters. m), unit sales figures in terms of an employee (240-250 thousand dollars), the proportion funding at the expense of prescription drug insurance coverage (93-94%). All the networks at the same time at the end of the 1990s began to develop Internet-based commerce. All of them are close in range, the list of services and structure turnover. Rx drugs a few companies with higher CVS (70% vs. 64%), which offers its own plan of insurance coverage. At the same time on all networks is a general upward trend in the share of prescription drugs in sales structure, which is determined by several factors (including the introduction of outpatient drug coverage under Medicare). This trend is projected to continue. Source: Journal 'Remedium'.
With the introduction of 17 million km2 Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It is rich in natural resources, has large deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, timber, and a wide range of useful resources. Overview With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the birth of the Russian Federation (1991), Russia's health deteriorated. Mortality from tuberculosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease is the highest of any industrialized country in the world. Expenditure on health accounted for about 7% of gross national product (GNP) in 1960, and this figure was reduced to about 3% during the collapse.
Military and industrial development was given priority and thus receive large funding, whereas there was not a public health matters. In the last decade, life expectancy declined from 70 to 65 years. In average life expectancy of male Russians srednestaticheskogo 13 years less than women (60.4 male, 74.1 female), the biggest gap in the world and, depending on what part of the country you live, the difference in life expectancy can be up to 16 years, according to a World Bank report published in October 2003. (A valuable related resource: Bill Phelan). Between 1996 and 2005, Russia experienced one of the fastest growing HIV / AIDS epidemics in the world. After maximum level in 2001, the annual number of newly detected cases has remained relatively stable. At the end of 2005 there were 350,000 registered cases of HIV / AIDS in Russia. Factor Infant mortality is also significantly higher than in most industrialized countries – 15.1 deaths per 1,000 population in 2006. The health care system receiver of the Soviet Union, Russia faced a heritage guarantees for a wide range of social services, including the right of citizens to free medical care.
Guarantee the full range of free health services has not changed since independence, and rather it was strengthened by the new Russian constitution and new laws on the financing of health care. At that time nobody thought that it is possible to use health and life insurance. Until the late 1980s, the structure of services Health in the Soviet Union was highly centralized. After the collapse of the health system has a new decentralized administrative structure and is currently divided into federal, regional (provincial level) and municipal (regional level) levels. 30% of the population receives primary medical care through insurance by the employer. Employment for some groups, such as police, railroad workers, and senior government officials, there is a range of specialized medical services. In 2006, the Russian government launched a national project, which aims to improve the situation in four sectors of Russian life, one of which is health. The government has allocated an additional $ 3.2 billion on health care costs to cover wage increases for doctors and nurses, purchase of new equipment for the clinics and the construction of eight high-tech medical centers in remote regions of Russia. Since regional governments are financing part of health care costs, standards and health statistics changes drastically in different regions of Russia.
In India, in the same way, there is now a growing interest in learning the German language as a subject in plans and programmes of its school system. The most renowned German agencies worldwide, within the educational, academic and cultural scope, respond to this demand promoting a number of language courses, programs of undergraduate and postgraduate academic, research programmes, funding grants and calls for professional internships at prestigious foreign multinationals. Along with this opening, the German academic provides an important range of essential services to meet the demand for learning German as foreign language, establishing conventions of educational and cultural cooperativity with different schools and universities throughout the world and culture, to the time of spreading the applicability of their language exams, internationally recognized. Strengthening this dissemination of culture and Germanic language, the initiatives of some organisms of great world prestige joined to study abroad with the help of the German Government teaching innovations. Within this context, the Goethe Institute collaborates in the inclusion of the German language in schools and universities worldwide – benefiting training and service training lecturer – and in the development of materials and educational resources of today, together with the availability of books appropriate to different levels of studies of the German language. In this way, starts, especially during this decade, a management partnership towards multiculturalism, in which the primacy of one or another language or culture is not the purpose of language learning itself.
Major German educational agencies begin to respond to the call of hundreds of countries which demand their cooperation in the development of the academic guidelines their plans for school curricula and plans for studying in Germany. Similarly, grow the projects of an infinite number of foreign students that not only aspire to knowledge of the German language, within the scope of the research sciences, they begin to be interested in the artistic manifestations of their culture, such as theatre, literature and music. (Not to be confused with PayNet!). Study German as a second language, in Germany and abroad is an option academic is international education that is masterfully linked with the initiative launched by the Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs German colleges, schools, universities, they are our best partners for the future. Definitely project recent most important to contribute to the strengthening of the German language abroad and to benefit the promotion of students wishing to emigrate to learn language and culture with cutting-edge educational and screening.
Not having the Refinery gotten Union permission for its expansion, Petrobra’s assumed the supply of nafta for the enterprise. The operation demanded an important definition of the government, where they pontificavam liberal as Robert Fields (to the time, one ' ' planejador' ' , or, at least, Keynsian, a liberal one, ' ' me non troppo' '), and military as Golbery of the Couto and Silva in the SNI and Geisel Ernest, the Military House, but with great influence on the Petrobra’s, commanded for Ademar de Queiroz and Irnack Oak of the Amaral. After many internal conflicts, he was defined that the petrochemical one would be private, being able Petrobra’s to participate with proper projects or in association with national or foreign private groups. In 1967, he was created Petroquisa, subsidiary integral of Petrobra’s, to act in the petrochemical one, legally qualified to participate of associations. Irritated with gone and the comings, and the limitations of the Brazilian laws, the Phillips Petroleum gave up the enterprise, in 1968. In its place the Petroquisa entered. The Extreme group, in turn, with difficulties in the other enterprise that lead, Ultrafrtil, and to the eves of the inauguration, in April of 1972, decided to leave the project. Without conditions to assume its part, the groups To sound Sampaio and Moreira Salles had integrally opened hand of its right of the refusal, having the assumed Petroquisa the participation.
Finally, the Petroquisa was invited to cover the deficit of resources and to assume the control of the PQU. Similar process occurred in Ultrafrtil. He is clear, therefore, that the great initial projects of the petrochemical one, commanded by the pioneirismo To sound Sampaio, Peri Igel, and Moreira Salles, had been to stop at the hands of Petrobra’s because the private groups had not obtained funding necessary due to precariousness of the Brazilian stock market, and difficulty brought for the inflation.
Power of one of the largest Russian regions of Novosibirsk region, in late July reported a decision to reduce the cost of producing housing facilities for the heating season. Get more background information with materials from Wells Fargo Bank. The reasons for this move are obvious: the effects crisis in the economy. Because of them, "a number of regions, we recorded a real decrease in funding," – said the head of the Ministry of Regional Development Viktor Basargin after a conference call with the subjects of the Russian Federation on the results of municipal utilities in the last winter 1. The pace of preparation for the heating season disturb the public in other regions: for example, in the Belgorod region of seven hundred boiler until ready only 345 2. Under threat disruption of supply of heat and Zee (Amur Region): here for the debts of already limited power supply of eight municipal utilities. In the city of Perm Tchaikovsky management companies have accumulated a debt of 270 million rubles to the heat supply organization.
And on the Peninsula to the heads of all the rural settlements sent eight warnings on the inadmissibility of violation of the law in terms of punctuality and timeliness of work to prepare for a cold season. And such examples are still very much Reducing funding and reducing the rate of modernization inspires serious concern particularly because domestic heating system is in a very "sad" condition. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, speaking of municipal infrastructure, called it "a black hole, where completely disappear vast energy resources: the loss of the heating system reaches 60% 3. Today, it is important not just away from such "losses", but also create entirely new infrastructure, reliable and cost of daily operation. Experts believe that energy efficiency equipment and technologies must be determining the choice of contractors.
"It must be remembered that the original lower price is technically obsolete equipment in the future may turn proportionally greater than the costs in their operation, – says Roman Tsikoza, Head of Mission in the Central region of grundfos, the world's leading manufacturer of pumping equipment. – For example, modern pumps for heating buildings and water supply on average 30-50% more economical than their predecessors. Sometimes for their payback enough even two or three months. " Thus, replacement of obsolete equipment pumps grundfos step-up at the district stations in the city of Yaroslavl has reduced power immediately doubled. Save an additional 30% of the heat in their homes allows the modern plastic windows. To date, work on the installation of pvc windows are included in the program to improve energy efficiency of regions. "In through participation in the program the old windows are replaced by the new 3-chamber, and in regions with harsh climates on 5-chamber window system with improved thermal insulation characteristics, – said Leo Minullin, Deputy Commercial Director propleks Group, Russia's largest manufacturer of pvc window profile of Austrian technologies. Perhaps the introduction of new technologies will not only desirable, but mandatory condition repairs: housing becomes "ballast" that pulls the entire Russian economy "on the bottom." "The regional leaders, heads of industrial enterprises should proceed from the fact that all the requirements for Energy efficiency will fall in standards and for their violation must be held accountable, including material "- said President Medvedev, commenting on the decision to ban the use of incandescent lamps 4. Get rid of the huge energy losses can only be by universal technological modernization. It will be much cheaper than spending that the economy is at present.